Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies
Security OrderAnzhelika Solovyeva5/9/2020View more
by Anzhelika Solovyeva & Nik Hynek - This chapter comprehensively defines autonomous weapon systems (AWS), discusses their military utility and strategic importance, as well as draws attention to related normative and legal considerations.
Operations of Power in Autonomous Weapon Systems: Ethical Conditions and Socio‐Political Prospects
Security OrderAnzhelika Solovyeva29/8/2020View more
By Nik Hynek & Anzhelika Solovyeva - The purpose of this article is to provide a multi-perspective examination of one of the most important contemporary security issues: weaponized, and especially lethal, artificial intelligence.
What Can Artificial Intelligence Do for Scientific Realism?
Artificial InteligencePetr Špelda7/4/2020View more
The paper proposes a synthesis between human scientists and artificial representation learning models as a way of augmenting epistemic warrants of realist theories against various anti-realist attempts.
The Future of Human-Artificial Intelligence Nexus and its Environmental Costs
Artificial InteligencePetr Špelda1/3/2020View more
The environmental costs and energy constraints have become emerging issues for the future development of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). So far, the discussion on environmental impacts of ML/AI lacks a perspective reaching beyond quantitative measurements of the energy-related research costs. Building on the foundations laid down by Schwartz et al. (2019) in the GreenAI initiative, our argument considers two interlinked phenomena, the gratuitous generalisation capability and the future where ML/AI performs the majority of quantifiable inductive inferences. The gratuitous generalisation capability refers to a discrepancy between the cognitive demands of a task to be accomplished and the performance (accuracy) of a used ML/AI model. If the latter exceeds the former because the model was optimised to achieve the best possible accuracy, it becomes inefficient and its operation harmful to the environment. The future dominated by the non-anthropic induction describes a use of ML/AI so all-pervasive that most of the inductive inferences become furnished by ML/AI generalisations. The paper argues that the present debate deserves an expansion connecting the environmental costs of research and ineffective ML/AI uses (the issue of gratuitous generalisation capability) with the (near) future marked by the all-pervasive Human-Artificial Intelligence Nexus.
What is (not) asymmetric conflict? From conceptual stretching to conceptual structuring
RadicalizationEmil Aslan Souleimanov4/11/2019View more
In the second half of the 1990s, the label “asymmetric” conflict rose to prominence among scholars and strategists, as a term for capturing the rising challenge that violent non-state actors posed to the liberal world order. However, the concept soon became a catch-phrase for a range of disparate phenomena, and other buzzwords arose to describe the threats of concern to decision-makers. Conceptual confusion beset the field. This article dissects the notion of asymmetric conflicts, and distinguishes between asymmetries involving differences in (1) status, (2) capabilities, or (3) strategies between belligerents. It argues that “asymmetric” conflicts can take numerous forms depending on the combination of differences present, and offers a blue-print for keeping track of the meaning of this concept in the hope of bringing greater precision to future debates.
A quantum model of strategic decision-making explains the disjunction effect in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game
Artificial InteligenceJakub Tesař23/5/2019View more
The disjunction effect introduced in the famous study by Shafir and Tversky (1992) and confirmed in subsequent studies remains one of the key "anomalies" for the standard model of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In the last 10 years, a new approach has appeared that explains this effect using quantum probability theory. However, the existing results do not allow for a parameter-free test of these models. This article develops a simple quantum model of the Prisoner's Dilemma game as well as a new experimental design that enables one to test the predictions of this model. The results show the viability of the quantum model and a substantial difference between women's and men's representations of the game.